most popular baby names of the centuryWhat are the most popular baby names of the century?

It sounds like a straightforward question. Except that there are different ways to measure usage.  Are Steven and Stephen two names or one?  Are we talking about the percentage of the population receiving a given name, or the name’s numerical ranking?  On percentages, today’s #1 name is far less common than the #1 name from a few decades back.

Here’s one measure that seems fairly objective: the US Social Security Administration provides a chart showing those few names that have ranked in the US Top Five at some point for the last century.

It’s an elite group, to be sure.  From 1923 through 2022, only 44 girls’ names have ever risen that high, and just 26 boys’ names. Call it another indicator of greater volatility and daring in naming our daughters. (Though that’s changing …)

The era matters. Amy, Barbara, or Betty would be rare on a child in 2023, even though they were once everywhere. Elijah might feel novel, but that’s likely because it’s relatively new to the elite five.

Let’s look at the 70 baby names to reach the very top of the US popularity charts over the last hundred years, making them the most popular baby names of the century.


A one-hit wonder, Abigail broke into the Top Five just once, in 2005.


Dynasty put this borrowed-from-the-boys name on top in the 1980s and 90s.


An 1980s chart-topper, Amanda  might still feel wearable today, a literary coinage likely to make a comeback … eventually.


A relative newcomer to the most popular names of all-time, even though it’s also a vintage favorite.


A mini name from the 1970s, Amy wouldn’t be out of place in our Ava-Mia age.


Almost a classic, and certainly a staple for many families.


An 80s name par excellence. While dozens of names owe their current success to Ashley, from Hadley to Avery, Ashley feels out of favor now.


Hollywood glam meets modern minimalism.


With a long history of use and international appeal, our granddaughters and great-granddaughters might embrace Barbara once more. For now, even the runaway success of Barbie at the box office might not be enough to boost this name.


Mad Men’s former Mrs. Draper didn’t inspire namesakes, and neither did Blake Lively and Ryan Reynolds’ daughter, but this former chart-topper will surely be back.


The famous Ms. Spears is Britney, and she’s made this name feel more pop star than French place name.


Feminine forms of Charles like Caroline and Charlotte are Top 100 picks, while Carol is still the mom on the The Brady Bunch.


The modern equivalent of Carol, regal Charlotte reigns in the twenty-first century.


The Biblical heroine is stuck in style limbo, but, like Barbara, will surely be back.


Both spellings of this name ranked in the Top Five in the 1950s.  Shades of Aidan/Aiden.


Oh, Donna. Ritchie Valens crooned the name, and it became one of the most popular picks of the 1950s and 60s. Today, it’s stuck somewhere between The West Wing and the original 90210, a familiar name, but no longer in the Top 1000, much less the Top Five.


Dorothy flew somewhere over the rainbow in The Wizard of Oz in 1939, and landed in Miami as one of The Golden Girls by 1985. Today it’s a three syllable, ends-with-y name ready for revival.


A Top Ten name for 25 years, Emily leans literary – think Dickinson and Bronte.


Boosted by many a fictional Emma, including Jane Austen’s heroine, this name feels classic and compact.


An Old Testament name with a homespun feel, Hannah ranked in the Top Ten from 1995 through 2007.


A 1970s staple, the mother of Harper and the forerunner of many a creative botanical name.


A Top Ten choice from 1891 through 1934, Helen came second only to Mary in a few years.


Elizabeth’s equally royal cousin skyrocketed to the Top 100 in 1998, and has been in the Top Ten since 2004.


Heard everywhere in the 1970s, Jennifer became the default name for a generation of girls.


As Jennifer faded, Jessica became the it-girl J name of the 1980s.


Another Mad Men name, once worn by the heroic Joan of Arc.  Less popular than Jane today, but still a possibility.


Jude is big for boys. Old Testament heroine Judith could be the new Abigail.


A tailored, Scandinavian spin on Katherine was most popular in the 1950s and 60s. Today, though, Karen’s status as a slang term for someone who complains puts this name even deeper into style hibernation.


The heir to Shirley, forerunner of Delaney and Everly.


Lovely Linda, once the name of a generation – today, firmly in grandmother name territory.


Once a pet name for Elizabeth, it’s long been an independent name. It sounded right for 8 year old Lisa Simpson when the character debuted in 1987. The Simpsons don’t age, but Lisa sounds more like the mom than the daughter in 2022.


Madison made a Splash when Darryl Hannah’s mermaid-in-New-York borrowed it from a street sign in 1984. It’s spent years in the US Top 100 since then, including a handful of years in the Top Five at the turn of the century.


A venerable classic, a Top 100 staple from 1880 into the 1980s, and a rising favorite again today.


Long the top name and undisputed #1, Mary has fallen out of favor. Meet a little girl called Mary today and it feels both classic and fresh.


Pretty Melissa would still fit in circa 2025.


Once a Beatles song, Michelle is now firmly in mom – and former First Lady – territory.


A member of the Top Ten since 2001, Shakespearean, elaborate Olivia has now spent years in the Top Five, including several in the very top spot.


Patricia has passed the shamrock to other Irish names, from Erin to Maeve, at least for now.


A 1990s Top Five choice, Samantha remains a popular go-to.


Sandra broke into the Top Five just once, in 1947. Today, we know it best as Olivia Newton’s character in legendary musical movie Grease.


Rarely has Sarah left the Top 100, and appearances in the Top Ten have been frequent. An evergreen choice!


The Ashley of an earlier generation, blame Charlotte Bronte for putting Shirley on the list of possibilities for girls. The famous Miss Shirley Temple helped cement this name as a 1930s favorite.


A lovely name with a great meaning – wisdom. With alternate spelling Sofia also popular, it’s the Jennifer of the last twenty years.


Tailored and spare, Susan could be a hit today, if only it didn’t top the charts in the 1950s.


Alexander appeared in the Top Five just once, in 2009. A classic choice, made cool by the letter X.


Preppy, polished Andrew had a good run, spending over three decades in the Top 20, and remaining a Top 100 favorite today.


Parents love regal Charles – and cuddly Charlie, too. While it makes a stylish choice today, the name’s Top Five streak happened back in the 1920s.


A member of the Top Five fraternity from the 1970s straight into 2001, Christopher feels solidly traditional, even if it’s fading slightly in use today.


He of the lion’s den, the heroic Daniel has been a go-to choice for generations.


Another enduring classic, though a David born in 2019 is probably David, not Dave. Or maybe just named Bowie instead.


An Old Testament choice, Elijah feels both ancient and modern. It’s a relative newcomer to the most popular names list.


A Colonial cool name, thanks to Ethan Allen, this former Top Five pick was obscure until the 1970s.


Jacob long held the top spot in the US – well before anyone had ever heard of Twilight. Biblical and accessible at the same time, Jacob remains a favorite.


Among the most classic of names, truly trend-resistant, James ranked in the Top Five from 1880 through 1980, and returned in 2016.


Big in the 1970s, Jason grew up, married Jennifer or Jessica, and named his kids Jacob and Ava.


Jason is the forerunner of lots of today’s popular names, including Jayden – one-part Biblical, one-part Pinkett-Smith.


Like Mary, John has fallen. Long the undisputed #1 name, surname form Jackson is now more popular than the original. But John’s influence remains significant, with many related names in our current Top 100.


A mega-hit from the 1980s into the early 2000s, there’s lots to love about this Old Testament name.


An upbeat, Irish choice, Liam did what Brian, Ryan, and Kevin could not – make it all the way to #1 on the US popularity charts.


A long-time stylish surname pick, a one-two punch from hit movies pushed Logan into the Top Five.


The descendant of Jason and Michael, an accessible surname name, Mason is only recently starting to fall in use.


The names of the twelve apostles make pretty solid choices. (Well, maybe Bartholomew feels a little obscure.) But Matthew works marvelously. Despite peaking in the 1980s and 90s, it feels more traditional than dated today.


Angelic Michael held the top spot from the 1950s into the 1990s. We think of John as the most popular boys’ name of all-time, but over the last century, Michael actually held the #1 place most often.


The alter ego of Santa Claus, Nick darted into the Top Five just once, in 1999.


For most of US naming history, Noah fell outside of the mainstream. Then came Joshua. Now it, too, has occupied the #1 spot in recent years.


Playful, handsome Oliver is almost traditional, but has long gone underused. But once sister name Olivia started to rise, Oliver, too, caught on.


Saintly and regal Richard counts as a classic, even though it’s faded quite a bit since the 1940s.


Another former #1, Robert ruled in the 1930s. Like Matthew, it can still wear nicely today, especially if you opt for Rob or Robbie instead of Bob. (Though Bobby does sound awfully sweet …)


A brother for Madison, or maybe Mason, Tyler cracked the Top Five in 1993, but only stayed until 1994. It’s still in regular use, but the average Tyler is probably grown-up now.


The future King of England answers to a truly enduring name. Once every William was Billy or Bill. Today, they’re more likely to answer to Will. Either way, it makes for a strong name with many years in the Top Five.

Which of the most popular baby names of the century is your favorite?  Are there any that you would still use, despite their former (or current) popularity?  Are you more likely to avoid names that were once popular, or do you only consider current use?

First published on April 11, 2014, this post was revised substantially and re-published on February 28, 2019; November 27, 2022; and October 7, 2023.

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About Abby Sandel

Whether you're naming a baby, or just all about names, you've come to the right place! Appellation Mountain is a haven for lovers of obscure gems and enduring classics alike.

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What do you think?


  1. Great list! It is amazing how many hit names obviously haven’t quite made the top of the list.

    Just for fun I ran the same question on the Australian data (could only find – 1930-1990 girls easily). Here are the ones that don’t show up on your US list:


    I’m so suprised by Stephanie and Rebecca! They were HUGE here and basically defined my generation of girls’ naming. I would be curious to see a rundown of how the most common nickname form of these popular names changed (eg Patricia = Patty, Pat, Trish or Elizabeth = Betty/Betsy, Liz, Beth, Libby, Liddy over the generations).

    1. There were quite a few Stephanies and Rebeccas here in the U.S. as well, just not enough to qualify for the top 100 apparently. Steph was the usual nickname for Stephanie. Becky is usual for Rebecca, but Becca also. I have a cousin my age named Nicole and also went to school with Nicoles. Christie/Christy/Kristi/Kristie/Kristy had so many spellings that it won’t show up on the popularity charts. Probably likewise with Kristen/Kristin and Cheri/Shari/Sheree/Sheri/Sherri/Sherry and Tami/Tammie/Tammy.

      I like Barbara and Deborah and Susan. They’re all classic names with a lot of history.

  2. I’m surprised Laura, Rachel, and Rebecca didn’t make this list! They feel so used in every generation.

    Still love Amy. She’s just sweet and strong.

    Because these names have been used so much, it’s relatively easy to have a real association with the name. It’s funny how none of them seem to be a mixed bag, though. Either I like everyone with the name or would do anything to avoid naming a child that name. I suppose stereotypes exist for a reason.

    1. It is funny, isn’t it? But the list is limited to the names that make the Top Five, and that’s a VERY small group of names. I hadn’t realized that Sandra and Tyler qualified, because I don’t think of those as everywhere, in quite the same way that I do a name like Rachel or Rebecca or Laura.

  3. I have an Andrew. My other faves are Daniel, Ethan and Nicholas.

    I used to love Isabella but it seemed over the top when I had my kids 20 – 30 years ago – as hard to believe as that may be now! And when I was in high school in the 70s I used to say I would name my first daughter Heather (didn’t happen).

    Love Abigail with the nn Abbey. Melissa, Samantha and Susan have taken turns appealing to me at different points.

  4. I like Amy, Betty, Joan, Mary, Ruth, and Susan from the girls’ list. From the boys’, I like David, James, and John. I think my absolute favorites here are Joan and James.